It regulates our growth, blood pressure, kidney function and when its function is disturbed, the consequences reflect to the whole endocrine system which could trigger many diseases.
Location and Role of Pituitary Gland in the Human Body
Pituitary gland is located in the base of our skull. The hypothalamus is responsible for its function. Pituitary gland is consisted of two parts, frond and back lobes which have completely different structure and function.
Front lobe is called adenohypophysis and it is responsible for the production of prolactin, growth hormone, thyrotropin, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic. These hormones regulate the functions of thyroid and adrenal, ovaries, testes and mammary glands.
The back lobe or also known as neurohypophysis produces oxytocin and anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin). These hormones are responsible for controlling the secretion of water. The hormones that are produced by the back lobe during childbirth are causing the uterine contraction.
Disruption in the Function of Pituitary Gland
Improper function of the pituitary gland causes various disorders and diseases in the human body.
If the front lobe of the pituitary gland increases the secretion of growth hormone in the early period of life it could lead to gigantism, excessive growth. It could result with physical deformations like excessive height and disproportional extremities.
If the disturbances in the secretion of growth hormone occur between the 30’s and 40’s, the person will be affected by acromegaly which is a condition characterized with excessive growth of the extremities, nose, ears, lower jaw and palms. This condition is also characterized with sinus enlargement, thickening of the tongue, excessive growth of the bones and enlargement of the internal organs.
The disturbance in pituitary gland causes diabetes and weakens the muscles. These problems affect both genders men and women. Four of every 100.000 people are suffering from improper function of the pituitary gland.
Increased secretion of hormones is caused from tumor development on the pituitary gland. Because of increased secretion of prolactin, men and women may experience secretion of milk. This is the first symptom of pituitary gland disorder.
Reduced secretion of hormones that regulate the function of sex glands could lead to infertility. Because of these and many other reasons, the pituitary gland disorder must be treated. The treatment is done with compensation or by lowering the hormone levels. In case of tumor, surgical intervention is necessary.
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